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3DVisA Bibliography of 3D Visualisation

(in progress)

A bibliography of 3D applications for the Arts and Humanities arranged by technology, and within each section, by discipline, the latest literature first. Other search facilities will be made available in due course. Please send your comments, corrections and additions to Anna Bentkowska-Kafel.

A selected bibliography of publications concerned with transparency, validity and reliability issues in 3D Visualisation in Arts, Humanities and Cultural Heritage Research is available on The London Charter website.


Schreibman, S., Siemens, R. and Unsworth, J. (eds.), (2004) A Companion to Digital Humanities, Malden, MA, Oxford, UK and Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.


Geary, A, Coldwell, P. and Rashan, A. (forthcoming), 'VHIP: A Prototype Haptic Environment for Fine Art Printmakers', Eurohaptics Proceedings, Paris, July 2006, Munich: Springer-Verlag.

Laycock, S.D. and Day, A.M. (2007), 'A Survey of Haptic Rendering Techniques', Computer Graphics Forum, 26(1).

Laycock, R. G., Laycock, S. D. and Day, A. M. (2006), 'Haptic Navigation and Exploration of High Quality Pre-rendered Environments', Proceedings of the 7th VAST Conference, Cyprus, pp. 17-24.

Geary, A and Sandy, M. (2004), 'A Haptic Training Simulation for Paper Conservation: Preliminary Results', Eurohaptics Proceedings, Munich: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-9809614-0-0.

Geary, A. (2003), 'A Haptic Virtual Reality Training Tool for Paper Conservators', Sketches and Applications, SIGGRAPH proceedings, San Diego. ISBN 1-58113-709-5.

Chen, S.E. (1995), 'QuickTime VR: an image-based approach to virtual environment navigation', Proceedings of ACM Siggraph, pp. 29-38.


Martinez, K. and Isaksen, L., 'The semantic web approach to increasing access to cultural heritage, in: Bailey, Chris (ed.) Revisualizing Visual Culture. Farnham, GB, Ashgate, Digital Research in the Arts and Humanities series, 2010, pp. 29-44.

Sinclair, P. A. S., Goodall, S., Lewis, P. H., Martinez, K. and Addis, M. J. (forthcoming) 'Concept browsing for multimedia retrieval in the SCULPTEUR project', Proceedings of the 2nd Annual European Semantic Web Conference, Heraklion, Crete 2005.

Guesdon, C. (2006), Toward a New Kind of Image: Photosynthegraphy, Leonardo, vol.39, No. 3, pp.193-197.

Aru, F., Zanuttigh, P. and Cortelazzo, G. M. (2005), 'Visualisation of Panoramic Images over the Internet', in: MacDonald, L. W. (ed.), Digital Heritage: Applying Digital Imaging to Cultural Heritage, Amsterdam, London: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-6183-6, pp. 467-488.

Goodall, S., Lewis, P. and Martinez, K. (2005), '3-D Shape Descriptors and Distance Metrics for Content-Based Artefact Retrieval', Proceedings of Storage and Retrieval Methods and Applications for Multimedia, Edited by Lienhart, R. W., Babaguchi, N. and Chang, E. Y., 5682, pp. 87-97, San Jose, California, USA.

Goodall, S., Lewis, P., Martinez, K., Sinclair, P., Addis, M., Lahanier, C. and Stevenson, J. (2004), Knowledge-based Exploration of Multimedia Museum Collections, Proceedings of European Workshop on the Integration of Knowledge, Semantics and Digital Media Technology (EWIMT), London, UK

Criminisi, A., Kemp, M. and Zisserman, A. (2003), 'Bringing Pictorial Space to Life: Computer Techniques for the Analysis of Paintings', Digital Art History, CHArt Yearbook, I, London: Computers and the History of Art, pp. 77-99, Edited by A. Bentkowska, T. Cashen and H. Gardiner, A PDF version is available online.


Web3D Consortium: Open Standards for Real-Time 3D Communication (3D technologies, study cases, forthcoming events, 3D community, etc.).

Dean, Al (2006), EON Reality, MCAD. Product Development and Manufacturing Solutions, Tuesday, 21 March.


Hart, V. and Robson, J. (1999), 'Hans Holbein's The Ambassadors (1533): A Computer View of Renaissance Perspective Illusion', Computers and the History of Art, 8.2, pp. 1-13.

Hart, V. and Robson, J. (1996), 'A Computer Model of Inigo Jones's Perspective Stage', Computers and the History of Art, 6.1, pp. 21-27.

Tavernor, R. (1996), 'Casting New Light on The Flagellation by Piero della Francesca', Computers and the History of Art, Vol. 6 (1), pp. 13-19.

[n.n.] (1994), 'Back to the Future' [The Alberti Project], Caddesk, January, pp. 26-30.


Game Studies. The international journal of computer game research.

Harrison, R. (2009), 'Excavating Second Life', Journal of Material Culture, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 75-106. DOI: 10.1177/1359183508100009.

Cooper, R. and Dibbell, J. (2007), Alter Ego: Avatars and Their Creators, Chris Boot Books.

Clarke, A. and Mitchell, G. (eds.) (2007), Videogames and Art, Bristol and Chicago: Intellect Books/Chicago University Press.

Barton, M. (2007), 'The History of Computer Role-Playing Games', Gamasutra, Part 1: The Early Years (1980-1983); Part II: The Golden Age (1985-1993); Part III: The Platinum and Modern Ages (1994-2004).

Buckingham, D., Burn, A., Carr, D., Schott G. (2006), Computer Games; Text, Narrative and Play, Polity.


Mueller, P., Wonka, P., Haegler, S., Ulmer, A. and Van Gool, L. (2006), 'Procedural Modeling of Buildings', Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 / ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), ACM Press, 25(3), pp. 614-623.

Hernández, C. (2004), 'Stereo and Silhouette Fusion for 3D Object Modeling from Uncalibrated Images Under Circular Motion', Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications. Available to download.

Laycock, R.G. and Day, A.M. (2003), 'Automatically generating large urban environments based on the footprint data of buildings', Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Solid and Physical Modeling, pp. 346-351.

Stamos, I. and Allen, P. (2001), 'Automatic registration of 2-d with 3-d imagery in urban environments', Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 2 July, pp. 731-737.

El-Hakim, S. (2000), 'A Practical Approach to creating precise and detailed 3D models from single and multiple views', IAPRS, 33, pp. 202-209.

Vosselman, G. (1999), 'Building reconstruction using planar faces in very high density height data', Proceedings of the ISPRS Conference on Automatic Extraction of GIS objects from digital imagery, September, pp. 87-92.

Wood, J. and Chapman, G. with contribution by Delooze, K. and Trueman, M. (1992): 'Three-dimensional computer visualization of historic buildings - with particular reference to reconstruction modelling', Archaeology and the Information Age. A global perspective, eds. P. Reilly and S. Rahtz, London: Routledge, pp. 123-143.

Delooze, K. and Wood, J. (1991), 'Furness Abbbey Survey Project - The application of computer graphics and data visualization to reconstruction modelling of an historic monument', CAA 90: Computer Applications and Quantative Methods in Archeology, eds. K. Lockyear and S. Rahtz, Oxford Archaeological Reports, pp. 141-8.

Burridge, J. M., Collins, B. M., Galton, B. N., Halbert, A. R. et al. (1989), 'The WINSOM solid modeller and its application to data visualization', IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 548-568, PDF version (accessed 28 November 2006).

Reilly, P. (1988), ‘Data Visualisation: Recent Advances in the Application of Graphic Systems to Archaeology’, IBM UKSC Report 185, March, pp. 29-33.


Biddle, M., Cooper, M.A.R., Kjølbye-Biddle, B., and Robson, S. (in preparation), The Tomb of Christ: History, Structural Archaeology, and Photogrammetry, monograph.

Fryer, J., Mitchell, H. and Chandler, J. (eds.), (2007), Applications of 3D Measurement from Images, Caithness: Whittles Publishing.

Day, A., Hart, V. and Robson, J. (1997), 'A Computer Reconstruction of Inigo Jones's Covent Garden Piazza, London, c.1640', Computers and the History of Art, 7.1, pp. 30-37.

Biddle, M. (1994), 'The Tomb of Christ. Sources, Methods and a New Approach', Churches Built in Ancient Times. Recent Studies in Early Christian Archaeology, Painter, K., ed., London: Society of Antiquaries of London Occasional Papers, 16, pp. 73-147.

Cooper, M.A.R., and Robson, S. (1994), 'A Hierarchy of Photogrammetric Records for Archaeology and Architectural History', ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 49 (50), pp. 31-37.

Robson, S., Littleworth, R.M., and Cooper, M.A.R. (1994), 'Construction of Accurate 3D Computer Models for Archaeology, Exemplified by a Photogrammetric Survey of the Tomb of Christ in Jerusalem', International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 30 (5), pp. 338-344 [Melbourne].

Hart, V., Day, A. and Cook, D. (1993), 'Conservation and Computers: A Reconstruction of Inigo Jones's Original Whitehall Banqueting House, London c.1620', Computers and the History of Art, Vol. 4.1, pp. 65-70.

Biddle, M., Cooper, M.A.R., and Robson, S. (1992), 'The Tomb of Christ, Jerusalem: a Photogrammetric Survey', Photogrammetric Record, 14 (79), pp. 25-43.

Cooper, M.A.R., Robson, S., and Littleworth, R.M. (1992), 'The Tomb of Christ, Jerusalem: Analytical Photogrammetry and 3D Computer-modelling for Archaeology and Restoration', International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Washington, 29 (5), pp. 778-85


Technology&more, A Publication for Surveying and Mapping Professionals, published by Trimble, 2007-.

Heinz, G. (date?), Pharaoh Pepi I: Documentation of the Oldest Known Life-size Metal Sculpture Using Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry, Mainz: i3mainz – Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology, (PDF), pp. 1-5.

Heinz, G. and Müller, H. (2005), 'Surveying of Pharaohs in the 21st Century', New Measurement Technology and its Application to Archaeological and Engineering Surveys, FIG Working Week 2005 and GSDI-8, Cairo, Egypt April 16-21, (PDF), pp. 1-8.

Westminster Retable, exh. cat., National Gallery London, 2005.

Robson, S., Bucklow, S., Woodhouse, N. and Papadaki, H. (2004), Periodic Photogrammetric Monitoring and Surface Reconstruction of a Historical Wood Panel Painting for Restoration Purposes, Proceedings of the ISPRS Confeence, Istambul (pdf).

Böhler, W., Bordas Vicent, M., Heinz, G., Marbs, A. and Müller, H. (2004), 'High Quality Scanning and Modeling of Monuments and Artifacts', FIG Working Week 2004, Athens, Greece, May 22-27, 2004, (PDF), pp. 1-17.

Reflection Transformation Imaging (RTI)

Lum, M., Mudge, M., Voutaz, J.-P. and Schroer, C. (2005), 'Reflection Transformation Imaging and Virtual Representations of Coins from the Hospice of the Grand St. Bernard’, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST 2005), 8-11 November 2005, ISTI-CNR Pisa, Italy, ed. By Mudge, M., Ryan, N. and Scopigno, R. (no p. nos).


Dean, M., Lawrence, M. and Rowland, C. (2007), Scapa Flow in 3D, DiverNet. Diver Magazine Online, January.

Flack, S. and Rowland, C. (2006), Visualising the Invisible: Visualising Historic Shipwrecks, ACM SIGGRAPH, Vol. 40, No. 3, November.


Chatterjee, R., (2006), 2006 Visualization Challenge Winners, Science, 22 September, Vol. 313., No. 5794, pp. 1730-1735.

N.N. (2005), Diagnostic Imaging: CT scans unwrap secrets of British Museum's Egyptian mummies, Medical Technology. Business: Europe, 7 April.

Taylor, J.H. (2004), Mummy. The Inside Story, London: British Museum Press; Reviewed by Sternberg, E. M. (2005), Science, Vol. 308, No. 5727, 3 June, p. 1415.

Mummy. The Inside Story, a virtual tour on the British Museum website.

N.N. (2004), Mummy: Inside Story. Archaeology meets Advanced Visualization with SGI Technology, A feature article on the Silicon Graphics Inc. website.


Earl, G. (2007), ' De/Construction Sites: Romans and the Digital Playground, Proceedings of the EVA London Conference, London College of Communication, 11–13 July, pp. 5.1-5.11 (PDF).

Pollini, J., Swartz Dodd, L., Kensek, K. and Cipolla, N. (forthcoming), 'Problematics of Making Ambiguity Explicit in Virtual Reconstructions: A Case Study of the Mausoleum of Augustus', Theory and Practice, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of CHArt: Computers and the History of Art, British Academy, London, November 2005, forthcoming 2007.

Kalay, Y.E. and Grabowicz, P. (2006), OAKLAND BLUES. Virtual Preservation of Seventh Street's 1950s' Jazz Scene, 3DVisA Bulletin, Issue 1, September.

Greenhalgh, M. (2005), 'Virtual reality, relative accuracy: modelling architecture and sculpture in VRML', Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World, Bowman, A.K. and Brady, M. (eds.), London: British Academy, pp. 45-58.

Chow, H. (2004), Accessing the Potential and Effectiveness of High-fidelity Virtual Reality Simulations in the Communication of Building Designs, Unpublished MPhil Thesis, University of Bath.

Sirbu, D. (2004), 'Architectural Multi-Dimensional Spaces: Digital Exploration of the Unbuilt', Convergent Practices: New Approaches to Art and Visual Culture, CHArt Conference Proceedings, Birkbeck College, University of London, 6-7 November 2003, Vol. 6, 2003; Bentkowska, A., Cashen, T. and Gardiner, H. (eds), London: CHArt.

Jeffrey, S. (2003), Three Dimensional Modelling of Scottish Early Medieval Sculpted Stones. A Ph.D. thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow, UK.

Gaffney, H. (date?), Digitising the Past: Reconstructing a 7th-Century BC Grecian Cup, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity of the University of Birmingham.

Earl, G., Poppy, S. and Wheatley, D. (eds) (2002), Contemporary Themes in Archaeological Computing, Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books.

Jablonka, P. (2002), 'TroiaVR: Ein Virtual Reality-Modell von Troia und der Troas', Archäologie und Computer Workshop 6. Forschungsgesellschaft Wiener Stadtarchäologie, Wien, 5-6 November 2001, Börner, W. and Dollhofer, L. (eds.), CD-ROM, ISBN 3-902086-07-6, Wien: Phoibos Verlag, pp. 1-7 (A pdf document).

Fernie, K. and Richards, J.D. (eds.), (2002), Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a Guide for the Arts and Humanities, AHDS Guides to Good Practice, with contributions by Tony Austin, Rachael Beach, Aaron Bergstrom, Sally Exon, Marc Fabri, Michael Gerhard, Catherine Grout, Stuart Jeffrey, Mike Pringle, Damian Robinson, Nick Ryan, Melissa Terras and additional case studies by Kate Allen, Clive Fencott, Learning Sites, Anthony McCall.

Greenhalgh, M. (2001), 'A Virtual Reality in Architecture; A VRML Model of Borobudar (Java)', Moving the Image: Visual Culture and the New Millennium, Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual CHArt Conference, Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1-2 September 2000. Bentkowska, A. and Sunderland, J. (eds), London: Computers and the History of Art.

Stout, K. (2001), 'Church-House. Virtual Reality Project', Stanley Spencer, exh. cat., Tate Britain, London, 22 March-24 June; Hyman, T. and Wright, P. (eds), London: Tate Publishing, p. 245.

Cosmas, J. (2001), 3D Measurement & Virtual Reconstruction of Ancient Lost Worlds of Europe.

Greenhalgh, M. (2000), ' Learning Art History in Context: An Image Database & VRML Model of Borobudur', Journal of the Association for History and Computing, vol. iii. no. 1, April. Also available in PDF.

Hartzler, B. and Daniels, M. (1999), Methods for shooting QTVR.

Burridge, J. M., Collins, B. M., Galton, B. N., Halbert, A. R. et al. (1989), ‘The WINSOM solid modeller and its application to data visualization’, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 548-568, PDF version (accessed 28 November 2006).

Reilly, P. (1988), ‘Data Visualisation: Recent Advances in the Application of Graphic Systems to Archaeology’, IBM UKSC Report 185, March, pp. 29-33.


Geary, A. (2005), '3D Virtual Restoration of Polychrome Sculpture: Techniques and Applications', in: MacDonald, L. W. (ed.), Digital Heritage: Applying Digital Imaging to Cultural Heritage, Amsterdam, London: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-6183-6, pp. 489-520.

Geary, A. (2005), '3D Digital Visualisation and Virtual Restoration of Polychrome Sculpture', Art of the Past - Sources and Reconstructions, Clarke, M., Townsend, J. H. and Stijnman, A. (eds), London: Archetype Publications. ISBN 1904982018.

Geary, A. (2005), 'Three-Dimensional Virtual Restoration applied to Polychrome Sculpture', The Conservator, Journal of the UKIC, No. 28. ISSN 0140-0096.

Fowles, P.S., Larson, J.H., Dean, C. et al. (2003), 'The laser recording and virtual restoration of a wooden sculpture of Buddha', Journal of Cultural Heritage, 4, pp. 367-371.


Ravelhofer, B. (2002), 'Virtual Theatres', Jahrbuch für Computerphilologie (ISSN 1617-3465), 4, pp. 133-150. Also online at Forum Computerphilologie.


Tsoupikova, D. Rutopia 1 and Rutopia 2, Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL), School of Art and Design, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2005. See also a description of the project Rutopia 2 in the 3DVisA Index of 3D Projects, 2007.

Burdea, C.G. and P. Coiffet (2003), Virtual Reality Technology, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Interscience